A lot of work within the field of nuclear waste involve technical documentation and reviewing of such documentation. In Sweden, Svensk Kärnbränslehantering AB (SKB) has been tasked by the Swedish government to manage nuclear and radioactive waste in a safe way, and decisions made by the former is reviewed by the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM). A rigorous Quality Assurance (QA) system is required by the latter.
Kemakta has been helping SKB with both the technical documentation, and the development of a QA system, since the beginning of the 1980s. Below you will find some of the typical technical documents we have been involved in writing, editing and reviewing during the last years:
FEPs – Features, events and processes
To ensure that a safety assessment accounts for all relevant factors a database of Features, Events and Processess (FEPs) that are of importance for the long-term safety in a nuclear waste repository is maintained. SKBs FEP database is a result of experiences working with previous safety assessments, as well as FEPs taken from the international OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) FEP databases.
Kemakta has been involved working with the SKB FEP database since the middle of the 1990s. We have also been involved with most of the FEP reports published with each long term safety assessment. Some example references follows:
- TR-95-22 The use of interaction matrices for identification, structuring and ranking of FEPs in a repository system. Application on the far-field of a deep geological repository for spent fuel.
- TR-06-20 FEP report for the safety assessment SR-Can.
- TR-10-45 FEP report for the safety assessment SR-Site.
- TR-14-07 FEP report for the safety assessment SR-PSU.
Having a database that contains the relevant processes is not enough for a long term safety assessment. An in-depth understanding on understanding the process and how to handle it in a safety assessment is also fundamental. The process reports role in the safety assessment methodology is to explain each process, if it is relevant to the current safety assessment, and give instructions on how to handle it in the assessment. The processes are usually divided into reports for the repository, the geosphere, the biosphere and the climate.
Kemakta has worked with several of the published process reports since the middle of the 2000s, both as process experts and as editors. Some example references follows:
- TR-06-19 Geosphere process report for the safety assessment SR-Can.
- TR-10-48 Geosphere process report for the safety assessment SR-Site.
- TR-14-03 Waste form and packaging process report for the safety assessment SR-PSU.
- TR-14-05 Geosphere process report for the safety assessment SR-PSU.
A long-term safety assessment is a complex project consisting of several different modelling and other calculation activities. To ensure that the data used are suited for safety assessment usage and also traceable and verifyable according to SKB QA standards, a rigorous methodology of qualifiyng and motivating the most important data is used. The results of this process is reported in data reports, which are a part of the report package in a safety assessment.
With the safety assessment SR-PSU a new type of data report was also included: the Input Data report. This report focused on compiling all the data used in the safety assessment, which complements the SR-PSU Data report that focuses on qualifiyng and motivating data that is considered to be of high importance.
Kemakta has been involved in the data reporting since the middle of the 1980s, both as editors and as subject experts. Some example references follows.
- TR-06-25 Data report for the safety assessment SR-Can.
- TR-10-52 Data report for the safety assessment SR-Site.
- TR-14-10 Data report for the safety assessment SR-PSU .
- TR-14-12 Input data report for the safety assessment SR-PSU.
Model summary reports
As written above a long-term safety assessment consists of several different model activites, and all of these activites use a software code. The model summary reports use a rigorous methodolgy to ensure that each of the used software codes are up to SKB QA standards. Kemakta has been involved in the model summary reports both as editors and as subject experts. Some example references follows.